100SILEX, de 0 à 100 s: functions
1386 Retro Synth Ads: Sound Master Memory Rhythm SR-88, Keyboard 1982
Sound Master Memory Rhythm SR-88 drum machine 1-page advertisement from page 67 in Keyboard Magazine August 1982. Hmmm. Not sure how I feel about this ad. There just seems to be a lot going on. For example, am I supposed to know who "The Rhythm Section" is? The fact that they include themselves in an already long ad title suggests they must be some kind of a big deal. And then you find their name again in the bottom left-hand corner: "The SR-88. Another innovative product from The Rhythm Section by Sound Master Distributed exclusively by JTG of Nashville." So, let me get this straight. JTG of Nashville is the distributor of the SR-88 which was created by The Rhythm Section which is somehow owned or operated by Sound Master. That is waaaaay to much information. Sounds like something political is going on there, and readers unfortunately get stuck in the middle of it. There also seems to be a lot of ad-copy which actually doesn t give me much information. Reason #4 gives readers the most info including instant stop/start, variable tone and output switches, and a write/play mode indicator. The most I glean out of the four other reasons put together is: 16 rhythms, clock pulse and a price of under $200. The actual specs that are probably most important to potential buyers are inexplicably shoved into the bottom right-hand corner. Luckily for me, there are a few resources on the Web with more information about this beast. Unluckily for blog readers, as soon as I started looking for more info, I got swept up in a certain SR-88/Boss DR-55 controversy. Comparing the SR-88 and Boss DR-55 One of the first Web sites I hit while looking for info on the SR-88 was Dubsounds.com. The site includes a great little write-up on the SR-88, but, more interesting was finding out about a little controversy about whether the SR-88 or the very similar Boss DR-55 came out first. The two do seem mighty similar in functionality. For comparison purposes, I did a quick search on MATRIXSYNTH to find more photos. . A great photo of a gray SR-88 can be found in this December 2005 SR-88 MATRIXSYNTH auction post and the less common, but definitely more cool, blue SR-88 can be seen in this January 2011 MATRIXSYNTH auction post. Comparing the two to the Amdek RMK-100 Interestingly, it s not just these two machines that look and function similarly. In this May 2009 MATRIXSYNTH SR-88 auction post commenter "PAC" notices: "Interesting. I have an Amdek RMK-100 (sold as kit), very similar!" Never heard of it, so I Googled "Amdek RMK-100" to see just how similar it was to both the DR-55 and the SR-88. Turns out (according to the Internet) that Amdek products were made by Boss/Roland back in 80s, and, not only that, but that the RMK-100 is actually the kit version of the Boss DR-55. Makes sense on why it would also be similar to the SR-88. I found an ebay auction for an Amdek RMK-100 going on right now with a great photo of the front panel (see below), and indeed it does share a lot with the DR-55 and SR-88 - but definitely not identical to either one. For example, it looks like the Amdek and SR-88 share a similar filler function that as far as I can tell is not available on the DR-55. And the DR-55 and the RMK-100 share a similar accent function that I don t see on the SR-88. Now where does the Electro Dynamics Corporation Programmable Rhythm SR-99 fit in? I also came across another machine with similar features - the Programmable Rhythm SR-99. No - not manufactured by Sound Master, but by Electro Dynamics Corporation. And, it too resembles the others in functionality, and especially the SR-88 in design also. I ve included a row of photos below to help make the comparison between the two. The SR-88 photo is from the 2005 MATRIXSYNTH auction post and the EDC SR-99 photo is from the excellent BigBlueWave.co.uk site. I ve also thrown in a photo from another recent E-bay listing that included both - plus boxes and manuals! Sick! Obviously, Sound Master and EDC are somehow connected, although I can t find any info on the Internet concerning these two companies. I do know that they were both advertising separately in Keyboard Magazine in late 1983, making it unlikely that one of the companies changed their name to the other. Anyone know anything? And then there is the Clef Master Rhythm... Now, I m going to throw in a late entry. It s Sunday night, and I just came across this August 2010 MATRIXSYNTH auction post for the Clef Master Rhythm. It not only shares part of the name of one of the other units ("Master"), it too has many features of the other rhythm machines, and identical innards as the DR-55, but is expanded to include even more sounds: "This is essentially a fully expanded Boss DR-55 feature-wise and tone-wise. The circuits are identical (schematically and tonally) to the Boss DR-55, but the Clef Master Rhythm gives you way more instruments than the Boss DR-55..." Interestingly, according to the post, it pre-dates the Boss DR-55 - and also came in a kit form like the Amdek. "The Clef Master Rhythm came out a little before the Boss DR-55 in late 1979/early 1980. It was sold in two versions and available in greater quantities in Europe than in the United States. One version was a kit that the user put together and another one was a prebuilt machine." A photo from the MATRIXSYNTH post really helps show the similarities in functions with the others: What does it all mean? So, looking at all five machines, its almost like there was a rhythm machine salad bar of some sort in Japan, and each company stepped up to it and picked out which features they wanted to include in their product. And that begs the question - since we know there was a kit form available and there are claims that the Clef Master even has the same circuits as the DR-55, could all five products (and probably others) have used the exact same internal parts - each company choosing which features to include and then customizing in their respective rhythm machine? And if so, were those parts supplied by Amdek, or did all five get their internal parts from some other manufacturer? And if that is the case, then the question of whether the SR-88 or DR-55 came first doesn t really matter much, since it is likely that the kit components would have been available first. Plus, we have that one auction post with the claim that the Clef Master came out before the DR-55 - making it all even more confusing to figure out. Or, am I totally off the mark on all this? Were they all created separately? Maybe I ve just been fixated on this a little too much... I ll keep on looking for more info on these companies and any connection they might have, but if anyone want to buy all four and open them up to take a look - it would be muchly appreciated. :D Posted by RetroSynthAds at 12:05 PM Labels: 1982, amdek, clef master, dr-55, drum machine, electro dynamics corporation, keyboard magazine, rmk-100, Sound Master, sr-88, sr-99 2 comments: Simon said... Here s a funny thing - I seem to remember Clef in the early 1980s as a British company that made electronic pianos (touch-sensitive ones!) in kit form. Deep in the back of my mind I recall seeing them at a music fair in London with a couple of their pianos and some drum machines including a prototype drum/bass/chord sequencer called something like a "Band-Box". But it WAS a long time ago. February 12, 2012 at 12:36 PM Simon said... Looks like (for once) my memory didn t fail me. Here is a 1982 ad for Clef Electronics showing all the products I mentioned, plus a natty-looking little monosynth! BTW, I owned an EDC SR99 drum machine in the mid-1980s, but replaced it with a Yamaha RX-21 a couple of years later. February 12, 2012 at 12:46 PM

1007 Advanced Programming Techniques for Modular Synthesizers / Nord Modular
1 Introduction 1.1 The Purpose of this Document 1.2 Acknowledgements 2 Oscillator Waveform Modification 2.1 Sync 2.2 Frequency Modulation Techniques 2.3 Wave Shaping 2.4 Vector Synthesis 2.5 Wave Sequencing 2.6 Audio-Rate Crossfading 2.7 Wave Terrain Synthesis 2.8 VOSIM 2.9 FOF Synthesis 2.10 Granular Synthesis 3 Filter Techniques 3.1 Resonant Filters as Oscillators 3.2 Serial and Parallel Filter Techniques 3.3 Audio-Rate Filter Cutoff Modulation 3.4 Adding Analog Feel 3.5 Wet Filters 4 Noise Generation 4.1 White Noise 4.2 Brown Noise 4.3 Pink Noise 4.4 Pitched Noise 5 Percussion 5.1 Bass Drum Synthesis 5.2 Snare Drum Synthesis 5.3 Synthesis of Gongs, Bells and Cymbals 5.4 Synthesis of Hand Claps 6 Additive Synthesis 6.1 What is Additive Synthesis? 6.2 Resynthesis 6.3 Group Additive Synthesis 6.4 Morphing 6.5 Transients 6.7 Which Oscillator to Use 7 Physical Modeling 7.1 Introduction to Physical Modeling 7.2 The Karplus-Strong Algorithm 7.3 Tuning of Delay Lines 7.4 Delay Line Details 7.5 Physical Modeling with Digital Waveguides 7.6 String Modeling 7.7 Woodwind Modeling 7.8 Related Links 8 Speech Synthesis and Processing 8.1 Vocoder Techniques 8.2 Speech Synthesis 8.3 Pitch Tracking 9 Using the Logic Modules 9.1 Complex Logic Functions 9.2 Flipflops, Counters other Sequential Elements 9.3 Asynchronous Elements 9.4 Arpeggiation 10 Algorithmic Composition 10.1 Chaos and Fractal Music 10.2 Cellular Automata 10.3 Cooking Noodles 11 Reverb and Echo Effects 11.1 Synthetic Echo and Reverb 11.2 Short-Time Reverb 11.3 Low-Fidelity Echo and Reverb 12 Distortion Effects 12.1 Distortion using Nonlinearities 12.2 Multiband Distortion 12.3 Polynomial Distortion 12.4 Distortion using Time-Variant Systems 13 Frequency and Pitch Shifting 13.1 Frequency Shifting 13.2 Pitch Shifting 14 Spatialization 15 Emulating Classic Synths 15.1 General Guidelines 15.2 Yamaha DX7 15.3 Octave Cat 15.4 ARP Odyssey 15.5 Casio 15.6 Hallsey Mark 1 and 2 15.7 Other Emulations

812 ED102 - Octave-Volts-Hertz
The ED102 borrows heavily from the Korg MS-02â„¢ although it was developed independently of Korg Inc. Korg and MS-02 are the trademarks of Korg Inc. Among presently available music synthesizers, there are two different types of control system used for controlling devices such as the VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) and VCF (voltage controlled filter). These two systems been: Hertz/Volt (Hz/V) and Octave/Volt (Oct/V). The graph to the left shows the relationship between the VCO oscillator frequency (pitch) and the control voltage (keyboard output voltage). The straight line on the graph is from a synthesizer in which there is a one octave change for every one volt change in the control voltage (Oct/V). In contrast, the curved line on the graph is the control voltage from a synthesizer in which the VCO frequency is proportional to voltage (Hz/V system). To allow these systems to work together you will need a module like this ED102. The built-in, fully adjustable log amp and anti-log amp ensure complete system flexibility and compatibility between any presently voltage controlled synthesiser. The Hz/V system In the Hz/V system, the VCO oscillator frequency is proportional to the control voltage so that, for example, if the frequency of a VCO increases by 100Hz for every volt applied, then applying 1V, 2V and 3V to this VCO would generate 100Hz, 200Hz and 300Hz respectively. The Oct/V system In the Oct/V system the VCO oscillator frequency changes one octave for every one volt change in the control voltage so that, for example, 1V, 2V and 3V to a VCO would generate 200Hz, 400Hz and 800Hz respectively. Features and Functions Log Amp: This changes a Hz/V type keyboard CV (control voltage) output into an OCT/V type of CV. Use the Log Amp to change the control signal from, say, a Korg or Yamaha synthesiser into a signal you can use with another type of synthesizer. Antilog Amp: This changes an OCT/V type of keyboard CV output into a Hz/V type of CV. Use this Antilog Amp when you want to control, say, a Korg synthesiser by means of a unit that uses the OCT/V system.

761 Midi Software - Synth Zone
MIDI Sequencing SoftwareAnvil Studio Anvil Studio is a MIDI and audio sequencer and is free software for Windows users. Building Blocks Building Blocks for Windows is a multifunctional MIDI application / modular sequencer, that allows you to build custom controller remapping, LFO's, arpeggiators, autochords, drum and note sequences, echoes etc. Busker A Windows score editor and player that has Yamaha style support. 1000s of Yamaha styles can be downloaded for free. Another great music software tool from Jos Maas. Cakewalk Sonar Windows & Mac sequencer now with integrated midi and audio. Sonar demo available. For other Cakewalk resources see Synth Zone's Cakewalk Page Cubase - Steinberg Featuring integrated midi & audio package Cubase VST For more info & related links see Synth Zone's Cubase Links Cursed Sequencer Open Source sequencer for Windows and Linux. Digital Performer MOTU presents Digital Performer for the Mac, a complete digital audio and MIDI production environment. Competitive upgrades available. See the new Digital Performer mailing list. Ditty Ditty is a freeware MIDI sequencer for Windows aimed at assisting piano practice. Easybeat Mac MIDI sequencing software from Uni Software Plus. Features include a software GM wavetable synth. Energy XT Energy XT is Windows sequencer/composer software. Fl Studio Windows application that provides easy to use yet powerful MIDI/digital audio sequencing and looping tools. Intuem Mac OSX MIDI sequencer that provides a variable-tempo system and a simple way to transform a real, human, performance into a sequence where bars and beats actually have meaning. Time restricted version available to download. Jammer - Soundtrek Jammer for Windows provides a 256 Track MIDI sequencer with built in studio musicians. A very useful program for creating arrangements & drum tracks with assistance from the software. Also check the Yahoo Jammer Group. JUMP A highly streamlined Windows MIDI sequencer, designed to help you compose music Jazzware - Jazz++ Windows & Linux open source MIDI sequencer with audio support. If you need a MIDI sequencer you really should check it out. Logic Pro Audio Apple's MIDI & audio solution for the Mac. For Emagic product support see the Emagic Legacy pages at Apple. For related information see Emagic Users Page with resources & mailing list for Emagic products, the Logic Users' Net which includes Mac related info, and the Powerkeys "Learning Logic" web site. SwiftKick provides and archive for the Logic Users' Group environments. Editors, MIDI processors etc. are available. Omega Art has Logic info and resources. You can read the History Of Logic at Tweakheadz Lab. Magix Magix Music Studio incorporates a MIDI sequencer with its digital audio sequencer. Massiva An audio/MIDI sequencer for Windows users with undo plus plugin support. This is just an archive of an old site. You can still get it from AudioMelody.com. Massiva has now moved on to become Energy XT Mixcraft Windows software that supports MIDI and audio sequencing.. MU.LAB An alternative, hi-quality music application for Mac OSX and Windows with MIDI and audio support. MultitrackStudio Window digital audio recorder with VST 2.0 plugin and MIDI support. Freeware version and pro versions available. Music Master Win sequencing & notation package with a full graphic interface for Roland VS880 control & integration. Music Master Works A shareware Windows sequencing & accompaniment package. Win95 & Win3.1 versions available. From Aspire software MusicPhrase XL MusicPhrase for Windows is a creative tool for composing music. Features phrase sequencing and visual groove editing tools. Music Studio Producer Music Studio Producer is a free Windows MIDI sequencer, DAW which can host VST(i), supports ASIO. From Aspire software Numerology Numerology is a modular sequencing and audio plugin environment for Mac OS X. Onyx Onyx by Jasmine Music provides powerful sequencing, harmonizer and MIDI-2-Audio rendering. Power Chords By Howling Dog Systems - Innovative Windows midi sequencer using onscreen guitar fretboard interface, plus other unique features for creating strum & rhythm patterns. Demo available PowerTracks Pro Audio PG Music's budget priced sequencer for Windows now features up to 48 tracks of digital audio with effects, EQ, panning etc plus 3rd party plugin support. Pro Tools Digidesign provide Pro Tools for Windows and Mac with MIDI, multitrack audio and plugin support. Quartz Audio Master Quartz Audio Master is free Windows multitrack digital recording software and MIDI sequencing software. Provided by DigitalSound Planet Reaper REAPER is a fully featured Windows multitrack audio and MIDI recording, editing, processing, mixing, and mastering environment. Fully functional evaluation available for download. Rosegarden Rosegarden is a free MIDI sequencer and notation editor for Unix, and has binary distributions for Linux PCs and SGI IRIX. SoftStep SoftStep is a Win9x modular step sequencer based on modular analog step sequencers. Features modules, which are math and logic functions that you treat as physical boxes with knobs and sliders. Style Enhancer Windows MIDI sequencer based on Performance Modeling technology with powerful and intelligent MIDI-data generation and transformation. SwarShala Midi sequencer package for Windows software that covers both the melodic and rhythmic aspects of Indian music. Featured instruments include Sitar, Sarod, Tanpura, Guitar, Tabla, Pakhawaj, Dholki and Bells. MIDI files and WAV files can be output. Sweet Sixteen Midi sequencer package for Windows from Roni Music. And check out the Sweet MIDI arpeggiator for Windows, very cool !! TR-x0x Freeware Windows step sequencer based on the Roland TR-808/909 drum machines. Tracktion Tracktion from Mackie provides low cost MIDI and audio sequencing. Tunafish A Windows VSTi MIDI sequencer with sample support. A fully functional ( save disabled ) demo is available to download. Has sample support and provides a built-in sample/drum sequencer. Xx A multi-track MIDI sequencer for MacOS. It is also an algorithmic compositional tool. Requires OMS. Midi SoftwareAudible Oddities - Twerk's Tools Audible Oddities is an audio mastering business and Shawn Hatfield also provides some free music composition tools for the Mac featuring sequencing control and algorithmic music generation. Burnt Toast even has a beta version available for Win XP. Catanya Software pattern arpeggiator VST plugin. MIDI-OX Win9x/NT midi utility providing sysex handling, diagnostics, filtering & mapping of midi data Streams. All Windows MIDI users should check this out. It is also available from Yamaha UK. Also see MIDI Yoke which allows you to route MIDI between different applications. vanBasco's Karaoke Player vanBasco's Karaoke Player is freeware Windows software that plays Karaoke (.kar) and standard MIDI (.mid, .midi, .rmi) files. Provides a piano keyboard and lyric display. Vocal Writer Shareware music & vocal synthesis software for the Power Mac. Not only playback & edit GM midi files, but it will also sing your lyrics (85 voices to choose from) Zel Zel is an interpretive MIDI programming language for Windows. Version 1.2 includes the Zel Drum Machine, a style based composer and editor which makes it easy to create MIDI drum tracks without having to learn the Zel language. Freeware. Midi Sequencing Related SitesAtari-MIDI Yahoo Group for Atari computer users to discuss MIDI applications. Also check The Caged Artist Series Page for once commercial MIDI software that is now freeware. Audio Forums Forums for most major sequencing & digital audio software packages. Harmony Central Provide an archive of MIDI sequencer and notation applications to download. There is software for all platforms available. HitSquad Provide links to a number of MIDI sequencers and "tracker" sequencers for Windows, Mac and Linux. MacMusic.org Macmusic.org have lots of links to Mac specific audio and MIDI sequencing resources. . Mac OSX MIDI Apps A very useful list of links to Mac OSX MIDI applications with descriptions and direct links to the websites and apps. Midijoys Freeware Windows program that combines two independent fully programmable joystick controllers, and a Continuous MIDI Controller programmable sliders that can send a wide spectrum of MIDI control parameters. MidiPlugins.com Links to freeware and commercial MIDI plugins for both Windows and Mac OS9/OSX. Music-X Amiga University Info on the original Amiga sequencer Music-X including writing sysex protocols. Also see Driptomatic Fairytales for Music-X info and resources. AM/FM also provide disk images containing many Amiga MIDI articles and tools. Sonic Control Sonic Control provides information and reviews of sequencers for all platforms as well as MIDI hardware. SourceForge SourceForge provide freeware software for Windows, Mac and Linux platforms and have many MIDI sequencer applications. Sweetwater Sequencer Forum Sweetwater.com provides forums including one dedicated to MIDI sequencers. Vintage Sequencers Tweakheadz Lab provides a great rundown on the ancestors of todays sequencers on computers in the 80s. Very interesting and informative reading with screen shots of many sequencers from the early days of MIDI.

533 The Theory and Technique of Electronic Music
Contents Sinusoids, amplitude and frequency Measures of Amplitude Units of Amplitude Controlling Amplitude Frequency Synthesizing a sinusoid Superposing Signals Periodic Signals About the Software Examples Examples Wavetables and samplers The Wavetable Oscillator Sampling Enveloping samplers Timbre stretching Interpolation Examples Audio and control computations The sampling theorem Control Control streams Converting from audio signals to numeric control streams Control streams in block diagrams Event detection Audio signals as control Operations on control streams Control operations in Pd Examples Automation and voice management Envelope Generators Linear and Curved Amplitude Shapes Continuous and discontinuous control changes Muting Switch-and-ramp Polyphony Voice allocation Voice tags Encapsulation in Pd Examples Modulation Taxonomy of spectra Multiplying audio signals Waveshaping Frequency and phase modulation Examples Designer spectra Carrier/modulator model Pulse trains Pulse trains via waveshaping Pulse trains via wavetable stretching Resulting spectra Movable ring modulation Phase-aligned formant (PAF) generator Examples Time shifts and delays Complex numbers Complex sinusoids Time shifts and phase changes Delay networks Recirculating delay networks Power conservation and complex delay networks Artificial reverberation Controlling reverberators Variable and fractional shifts Fidelity of interpolating delay lines Pitch shifting Examples Filters Taxonomy of filters Low-pass and high-pass filters Band-pass and stop-band filters Equalizing filters Elementary filters Elementary non-recirculating filter Non-recirculating filter, second form Elementary recirculating filter Compound filters Real outputs from complex filters Two recirculating filters for the price of one Designing filters One-pole low-pass filter One-pole, one-zero high-pass filter Shelving filter Band-pass filter Peaking and stop-band filter Butterworth filters Stretching the unit circle with rational functions Butterworth band-pass filter Time-varying coefficients Impulse responses of recirculating filters All-pass filters Applications Subtractive synthesis Envelope following Single Sideband Modulation Examples Fourier analysis and resynthesis Fourier analysis of periodic signals Periodicity of the Fourier transform Fourier transform as additive synthesis Properties of Fourier transforms Fourier transform of DC Shifts and phase changes Fourier transform of a sinusoid Fourier analysis of non-periodic signals Fourier analysis and reconstruction of audio signals Narrow-band companding Timbre stamping (classical vocoder) Phase Phase relationships between channels Phase bashing Examples Classical waveforms Symmetries and Fourier series Sawtooth waves and symmetry Dissecting classical waveforms Fourier series of the elementary waveforms Sawtooth wave Parabolic wave Square and symmetric triangle waves General (non-symmetric) triangle wave Predicting and controlling foldover Over-sampling Sneaky triangle waves Transition splicing Examples Index Bibliography

376 Foobar2000:Title Formatting Reference - Hydrogenaudio Knowledgebase
This article contains information about built-in titleformatting functions and field references with special meaning. References to documentation about fields and function which can only be used in specific components or which are provided by specific components can be found at the end of this article. A field reference is a field name enclosed in percent signs, for example %artist%. A function call starts with a dollar sign, followed by the function name and the parameter list. A parameter list can either be empty - denoted as () - or contain one or more parameters separated by commata, for example $abbr(%artist%). Note that there must be no whitespace between the dollar sign and the function name, or the function name and the opening parenthesis of the parameter list. Please see Title Formatting Introduction for a presentation of titleformat syntax in general. For details of the query syntax, which uses these fields, see: Query Syntax.

259 9 Useful PHP Functions and Features You Need to Know | Nettuts+
Even after using PHP for years, we stumble upon functions and features that we did not know about. Some of these can be very useful, yet underused. Not all of

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